FPF Report: Automated Decision-Making Under the GDPR – A Comprehensive Case-Law Analysis

Today, the Future of Privacy Forum launched a comprehensive Report analyzing case-law under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) applied to real-life cases involving Automated Decision Making (ADM). The Report is informed by extensive research covering more than 70 Court judgments, decisions from Data Protection Authorities (DPAs), specific Guidance and other policy documents issued by regulators.

The GDPR has a particular provision applicable to decisions based solely on automated processing of personal data, including profiling, which produces legal effects concerning an individual or similarly affects that individual: Article 22. This provision enshrines one of the “rights of the data subject”, particularly the right not to be subject to decisions of that nature (i.e., ‘qualifying ADM’), which has been interpreted by DPAs as a prohibition rather than a prerogative that individuals can exercise.

However, the GDPR’s protections for individuals against forms of automated decision-making (ADM) and profiling go significantly beyond Article 22. In this respect, there are several safeguards that apply to such data processing activities, notably the ones stemming from the general data processing principles in Article 5, the legal grounds for processing in Article 6, the rules on processing special categories of data (such as biometric data) under Article 9, specific transparency and access requirements regarding ADM under Articles 13 to 15, and the duty to carry out data protection impact assessments in certain cases under Article 35.

This new FPF Report outlines how national courts and DPAs in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and the

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